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0:09 - Background and work history

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Partial Transcript: --k Mr. Phipps, could you begin by telling me something about your background and, and your job here?

Segment Synopsis: Mr. Phipps talks about how long he has been involved in mining and how he became district president of a union.

Keywords: District presidents; Job history; Union organizers

Subjects: Coal miners United States Steel Corporation


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2:36 - Evolution of mining methods

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Partial Transcript: How--could you talk about the differences in mining now as compared to when you first started--

Segment Synopsis: Mr. Phipps discusses how mining has changed over the years including methods and safety measures.

Keywords: Animals in the mines; Bolts; Continuous miners; Conventional mining; Conveyors; Dangerous; Hand loading; Longwall mining; Mine roof support systems; Mining methods; Pillow mining; Strikes

Subjects: Coal miners Coal mines and mining--Safety measures Coal mines and mining--Technological innovations Coal-mining machinery United States Steel Corporation


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13:54 - Union organizing and opposition

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Partial Transcript: Could you talk some then about organizing at Brookside?

Segment Synopsis: Mr. Phipps describes how the union has struggled to organize in many places.

Keywords: Coal companies; District control; International office; Opposition

Subjects: Coal miners--Labor unions United Mine Workers of America Wages--Coal miners


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21:00 - Mining politics

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Partial Transcript: You gotta understand coal mining.

Segment Synopsis: Mr. Phipps describes the faults of mining politics and the back and forth elections that finally resulted in a union victory.

Keywords: Dangerous conditions; Dignity; Mining methods; Pillow mining

Subjects: Coal miners--Labor unions Coal mines and mining Elections United Mine Workers of America United States. National Labor Relations Board. Wages--Coal miners


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30:49 - Disdain for the National Labor Relations Board

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Partial Transcript: Why would you say the National Labor Relations Board uses these delaying tactics?

Segment Synopsis: Mr. Phipps describes how the NLRB continually opposes the union and threatens miners as a way to push their own agenda.

Keywords: Anti-union; Curtailing union activity

Subjects: Coal miners--Labor unions United Mine Workers of America United States. National Labor Relations Board


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34:51 - Union convention

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Partial Transcript: How many union--or international--presidents international have you known?

Segment Synopsis: Mr. Phipps tells a story of union president John L. Lewis subduing a brawl at a union convention.

Keywords: Conventions; Oratorians; Past presidents; Richard Trumka; Union delegations

Subjects: Coal miners--Labor unions Lewis, John Llewellyn, 1880-1969 United Mine Workers of America


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41:52 - Stereotypes of miners / using animals in the mines

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Partial Transcript: Coal mining is a misunderstood profession by the world at large.

Segment Synopsis: Mr. Phipps shares some miner stereotypes and shows pictures of miners using animals to work in the mines.

Keywords: Animals in the mines; Coal mining methods; Stereotypes

Subjects: Coal miners Coal mines and mining Discrimination


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47:06 - Levels of safety in union and non-union mines

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Partial Transcript: About safety and, and, and the union's, uh, record on safety.

Segment Synopsis: Mr. Phipps describes the difference in safety between union and non-union mines. He tells of the dangerous mining techniques of smaller mining companies where loss of life is high.

Keywords: Accidents; Horseback; Kettle bottoms; Mining methods; Non-Union mining; Soap stones; Union mining; Union's safety record; Wrongful death

Subjects: Coal mine accidents Coal miners Coal miners--Labor unions Coal mines and mining--Safety measures


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57:07 - Establishing coal camps

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Partial Transcript: Uh, I'm interested in immigrants who worked in the coal mines to, uh--could you talk a little about that?

Segment Synopsis: Mr. Phipps describes the early beginnings of immigrants in Eastern Kentucky and talks about their role in establishing coal camps.

Keywords: 1880s; Cast-iron; Child labor; Coal camps; Electricity; Foreign workers; Stonemasonry

Subjects: Arch Mineral Corporation Coal miners Immigrants--Kentucky


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63:30 - Treatment of immigrants

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Partial Transcript: Would you say that, uh, immigrants made good union members?

Segment Synopsis: Mr. Phipps shares how immigrants were often manipulated by authority. Authority could prey on the fact that immigrants had no other options.

Keywords: Coal camps; Scrip

Subjects: Coal miners--Labor unions Immigrants Mountain people United Mine Workers of America


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68:59 - Power of authority in coal camps

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Partial Transcript: I was talking to a man in Lynch, I don't know, back in June. I did some interviews up there.

Segment Synopsis: Mr. Phipps describes the harsh methods officials in coal camps used on the residents.

Keywords: Catholics; Death; Gun thugs; Happy Chandler; National Guard; Shack rousters

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72:21 - Hopes for preservation of union information

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Partial Transcript: If you need names of folks, there are some folks that go back.

Segment Synopsis: Mr. Phipps shares names of people with more information. He wishes union materials were properly archived.

Keywords: Archives; Arnold Miller; Coal companies; Harry Caudill; Millard Scott; Secret organizations; Tony Funich; Woodward brothers

Subjects: Coal miners--Labor unions Labor--History Lewis, John L. (John Llewellyn), 1880-1969. Lynch (Ky) United Mine Workers of America


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79:57 - Union benefits

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Partial Transcript: Now you're not supposed to say anything about the dead. And if you can't say something good, keep your mouth shut.

Segment Synopsis: Mr. Phipps explains the confusion miners experience when they think benefits are coming from the coal company when in reality, they are supported by the union. He discusses how the companies take advantage of this to hold power over the miners.

Keywords: Coal barons; Confusion; Contract requirements; Control; Employee benefits; Labor consultants; Lack of experience; Manipulation; Medical plans; Sacrifices

Subjects: Coal miners--Labor unions Miller, Arnold, 1923 United Mine Workers of America Wages--Coal miners


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